用 Nginx 和 Unicorn 部署 Ruby on Rails 应用

最近把博客迁移到 Azure 上,App Server 也从 Passenger 换成了 Unicorn,考虑到 Rails 生产环境的搭建还是比较麻烦的,顺便写个安装手册,备用。

安装 RVM

通常使用 RVM 或 rbenv 来安装 Ruby,这里选用 RVM。

$ curl -sSL https://get.rvm.io | bash -s stable

载入 RVM :

$ source /home/libuchao/.rvm/scripts/rvm
$ rvm -v
rvm 1.25.12 (stable) by Wayne E. Seguin <wayneeseguin@gmail.com> ......

再执行以下命令:

$ type rvm
rvm is a function
......

说明 RVM 安装正确。

安装 Ruby

用 RVM 安装 Ruby

$ rvm install 2.1.0
$ rvm use 2.1.0 --default
$ ruby -v
ruby 2.1.0p0

国内服务器推荐替换 RubyGems 的到淘宝镜像

$ gem sources -r https://rubygems.org/
$ gem sources -a http://ruby.taobao.org/

否则安装 Gem 可能会非常非常慢。

安装 Rails

其实 Rails 也是一个 Gem

$ gem install rails --no-ri --no-rdoc -V
......
$ rails -v
Rails 4.0.2

至此,Rails 环境已经安装完成。

安装 MySQL

安装 Mysql 及相应的库文件:

$ sudo apt-get install mysql-server libmysqlclient-dev

然后进行一些安装方面的设置:

$ /usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation

创建相应的数据库,并为它新建一个权限小一些的用户:

mysql> CREATE DATABASE blix_production;
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON blix_production.* TO blix@localhost IDENTIFIED BY "123456";
mysql> flush privileges;
mysql> exit

导入数据:

$ mysql -u blix -p blix_production < database.sql

安装 Nginx

Nginx 专门处理静态请求,并作为 Unicorn 的反向代理

编辑 /etc/apt/sources.list,末尾处添加以下两行

deb http://nginx.org/packages/ubuntu/ precise nginx
deb-src http://nginx.org/packages/ubuntu/ precise nginx

添加 Nginx 签名

$ wget http://nginx.org/keys/nginx_signing.key
$ sudo apt-key add nginx_signing.key

安装 Nginx

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install nginx

安装完成后可以在浏览器中输入 http://server-ipaddress 查看是否安装正确。

配置 Unicorn

首先编译一下静态文件:

$ RAILS_ENV=production rake assets:clean
$ RAILS_ENV=production rake assets:precompile

Unicorn 配置参考:

worker_processes 2
timeout 30

APP_PATH = File.expand_path("../..", __FILE__)
working_directory APP_PATH

listen 8080, :tcp_nopush => true
listen "/tmp/unicorn.sock", :backlog => 64

stderr_path APP_PATH + "/log/unicorn.stderr.log"
stdout_path APP_PATH + "/log/unicorn.stdout.log"

pid APP_PATH + "/tmp/pids/unicorn.pid"

Unicorn 自启动脚本:

#!/bin/sh
set -e
# Example init script, this can be used with nginx, too,
# since nginx and unicorn accept the same signals

# Feel free to change any of the following variables for your app:
TIMEOUT=${TIMEOUT-60}
APP_ROOT=/home/libuchao/blix
APP_USER=libuchao
PID=$APP_ROOT/tmp/pids/unicorn.pid
CMD="unicorn_rails -D -E production -c $APP_ROOT/config/unicorn.rb"
action="$1"
set -u

old_pid="$PID.oldbin"

cd $APP_ROOT || exit 1

sig () {
        test -s "$PID" && kill -$1 `cat $PID`
}

oldsig () {
        test -s $old_pid && kill -$1 `cat $old_pid`
}

case $action in
start)
        sig 0 && echo >&2 "Already running" && exit 0
        su -c "$CMD" - $APP_USER
        ;;
stop)
        sig QUIT && exit 0
        echo >&2 "Not running"
        ;;
force-stop)
        sig TERM && exit 0
        echo >&2 "Not running"
        ;;
restart|reload)
        sig HUP && echo reloaded OK && exit 0
        echo >&2 "Couldn't reload, starting '$CMD' instead"
        su -c "$CMD" - $APP_USER
        ;;
upgrade)
        if sig USR2 && sleep 2 && sig 0 && oldsig QUIT
        then
                n=$TIMEOUT
                while test -s $old_pid && test $n -ge 0
                do
                        printf '.' && sleep 1 && n=$(( $n - 1 ))
                done
                echo

                if test $n -lt 0 && test -s $old_pid
                then
                        echo >&2 "$old_pid still exists after $TIMEOUT seconds"
                        exit 1
                fi
                exit 0
        fi
        echo >&2 "Couldn't upgrade, starting '$CMD' instead"
        su -c "$CMD" - $APP_USER
        ;;
reopen-logs)
        sig USR1
        ;;
*)
        echo >&2 "Usage: $0 <start|stop|restart|upgrade|force-stop|reopen-logs>"
        exit 1
        ;;
esac

将这个 shell 在/etc/init.d/下做一个软连接,并使其开机自启动:

$ chmod +x /home/libuchao/blix/config/unicorn_init.sh
$ sudo ln -s /home/libuchao/blix/config/unicorn_init.sh /etc/init.d/unicorn
$ sudo update-rc.d unicorn defaults

启动 Unicorn:

$ service unicorn start

在浏览器中输入 http://server_ipaddress:8080 查看效果。

配置 Nginx

Nginx 配置参考:

upstream blix_backend {
    server unix:/tmp/unicorn.sock fail_timeout=0;
}

gzip  on;
gzip_disable "msie6";
client_max_body_size 150m;

server {
    listen 80 default;
    return 403;
}

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name libuchao.com www.libuchao.com;

    root /home/libuchao/blix/public;

    try_files $uri/index.html $uri.html $uri @httpapp;

    location @httpapp {
        proxy_redirect     off;
        proxy_set_header   Host $host;
        proxy_set_header   X-Forwarded-Host $host;
        proxy_set_header   X-Forwarded-Server $host;
        proxy_set_header   X-Real-IP        $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header   X-Forwarded-For  $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_buffering    on;

        proxy_pass http://blix_backend;
    }

    location ~ ^(/assets) {
        access_log  off;
        expires     max;
    }
}

此时应该可以通过域名直接访问了。

参考文档:

Posted on 2014-01-13

2 Comments

  • 天骄之弓 天骄之弓 over 3 years ago

    顶支持博主 加油了

  • 谦虚如我 谦虚如我 over 1 year ago

    很好不错。顶!

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